Tunnels are subway structures that are built for various purposes, such as transportation of vehicles or people, mining, water or electric power conduction, among others. The support in tunnels, which is performed by Pigra Engineering S.L., is essential to guarantee the safety and stability of the structure during its construction and operation.
There are several methods of tunnel construction,these include the traditional hand-dug method, the drill and blast method, the mechanical tunnel boring machine method and the injection method. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages and is selected based on ground conditions, tunnel size and depth, among other factors.
Regarding the tunnel support and lining,there are different options at Pigra Engineering S.L., such as the use of beams and columns, the use of concrete walls or the use of masonry cladding. These methods are used to provide adequate stability and strength to the tunnel, and to protect it against water infiltration and deterioration caused by moisture.
In mining, tunnel support is especially important due to the extremely difficult conditions and high safety requirements. The methods of support used in mining include the use of anchoring systems, the use of steel faces and the use of pressurized support systems.
Regarding the parts of a tunnel,tunnels can be divided into several sections, such as the tunnel head, the tunnel body and the tunnel tail. The tunnel head is the entrance to the tunnel and usually includes a preparation zone and a safety zone. The body of the tunnel is the main part and is where most of the construction takes place. The tunnel tail is the exit of the tunnel and usually includes an eviction area and a safety area.
In summary, tunnel support, which is done at Pigra Engineering S. L., is essential to ensure the stability and safety of the tunnel during construction and operation. There are several methods of tunnel construction and for the support and lining of tunnels, and each has its own challenges and requirements. The choice of the appropriate method depends on factors such as the geology of the terrain, the length and diameter of the tunnel, as well as the presence of obstacles and hazards. The selection of appropriate materials and technologies for support and lining is also crucial to ensure the long-term durability and safety of the tunnel. Continuous supervision and monitoring are essential to detect and correct problems at an early stage and to ensure the extended life of the tunnel. In short, tunnel support is a key aspect of tunnel construction that should not be underestimated.