There are several methods of tunnel construction,each with its own advantages and disadvantages. The most common methods are the drill-and-blast method, the tunnel construction method in subsidence and the tunnel construction method with a tunnel boring machine (TBM).
The drill and blast method is the oldest and most commonly used method of tunnel construction. This method consists of drilling holes in the rock or soil using explosives, and then blasting the rock or soil to create a tunnel. This method is suitable for hard and rocky terrain, and is the method of choice for tunnelling in mountains and other difficult to access areas. However, this method also has its disadvantages, such as noise, vibrations and dust generated by blasting, as well as the risk of landslides and cave-ins.
The sinking tunnel construction method is a newer method that has become increasingly popular in recent years. This method consists of excavating a tunnel from the surface and then filling the empty space with backfill materials. This method is suitable for soft and easily excavated soils, such as soil or clay. However, this method also has its disadvantages, such as the risk of landslides and cave-ins, as well as the risk of damage to nearby structures.
Tunnelling with a tunnel boring machine is a more modern method that has become increasingly popular in recent years. This method consists of using a specialized machine called a tunnel boring machine (TBM), which is capable of cutting and removing the rock and soil as it advances, leaving a tunnel of a predetermined diameter. This technology has significantly improved the efficiency and safety of tunnel construction, allowing for faster and less costly construction. In addition, it has also reduced the need for manual workers in tunnel construction, which has contributed to less exposure to occupational hazards. In summary, the use of tunnel boring machines in tunnel construction is an innovative and efficient solution that has become a popular choice in the construction industry.
Digging a tunnel by hand is hard work and requires great physical effort. However, with the right tools and techniques, it is possible to dig a tunnel safely and efficiently.
The first thing is to plan the tunnel. Determining the length, depth, and location of the tunnel is essential to ensure that safety requirements are met and to ensure that the tunnel is structurally sound.
Once the tunnel has been planned, it is necessary to get the right tools. Shovels, picks, pickaxes, wheelbarrows, and hammers are some of the essential tools for tunnel digging. It is important to make sure that the tools are in good condition before starting to dig.
Before digging begins, it is important to mark the area where the tunnel is to be dug. This will help ensure that you are digging in the correct location and avoid accidents.
Once the area is marked, tunnel digging can begin. It is important to dig in an orderly fashion, starting at one end of the tunnel and moving toward the other. It is advisable to dig in small sections, and then remove the soil with a wheelbarrow.
Furthermore, it is important to take safety measures while the tunnel is being dug. This includes wearing personal protective equipment, such as a hard hat, safety glasses, and gloves, and also making sure that the tunnel is adequately ventilated.
In summary, digging a tunnel by hand is hard work and requires great physical effort, but with proper planning, the right tools and techniques, and effective safety measures, it is possible to dig a tunnel safely and efficiently.
Tunnels are used for various purposes, such as transportation, mining, infrastructure construction and natural resource protection. The following is a description of some of the most common types of tunnels:
In general, the choice of tunnel type will depend on the specific needs of the project, such as the geology of the terrain, the end use of the tunnel, and the available resources.
A tunnel with trusses is a type of tunnel structure that uses trusses (a type of steel beam) to support the earth and rock above the tunnel. These trusses are placed in an arched pattern, creating a strong and resistant structure. Truss tunnels are often used in large-scale tunnel construction projects, such as transportation tunnels, water tunnels and mine tunnels.
The advantage of truss tunnels is that they are capable of supporting large loads and are suitable for terrains with high earth and rock pressure. However, they also require a large amount of steel and are expensive to build.
Examples of truss tunnel projects include the Thames Tideway water-base tunnel, the Los Angeles water-base tunnel and the Alpine water-base tunnel.
The construction of a tunnel is divided into several phases. The following is a description of the main phases in the tunnel construction process: